|On 29 October 1923, Turkish Republic was formally proclaimed and Atatürk was unanimously elected as its first President. On 30 October 1923, the first government of the Republic was formed by Ismet Inonu. Turkish Republic started to grow on the foundations of the twin principles "Sovereignty, unconditionally belongs to the nation" and "peace at home and peace abroad", Ataturk undertook a series of reforms to "raise Turkey to the level of modern civilizations" which can be grouped under five titles
1. Political Reforms
* Abolishment of the office of the Sultan (November 1922)
* Proclamation of the Republic (29 October 1923)
* Abolishment of the caliph (3 March 1924)
2. Social Reforms
* Recognition of equal rights to men and women (1926 - 1934)
* Reform of Headgear and Dress (25 November 1925)
* Closure of mausoleums and dervish lodges (30 November 1925)
* Law on family names (21 June 1934)
* Abolishment of titles and by-names (26 November 1934)
* Adoption of international calendar, hours and measurements (1925 - 1931)
3. Legal Reforms
* Abolishment of the Canon Law (1924 - 1937)
* Transfer to a secular law structure by adoption of Turkish Civil Code and other laws
(1924 - 1937)
4. Reforms in the fields of education and culture
* Unification of education (3 March 1924)
* Adoption of new Turkish alphabet (1 November 1928)
* Establishment of Turkish Language and History Institutions (1931 - 1932)
* Regulation of the university education (31 May 1933)
* Innovations in fine arts
5. Economic Reforms
* Abolition of tithe
* Encouragement of the farmers
* Establishment of model farms
* Establishment of industrial facilities, and putting into effect a law for Incentives for the
* Putting into effect Ist and IInd Development Plans (1933-1937), to develop
According to the Law on Family Names, the Turkish Grand Assembly gave "Ataturk" (Father of Turks) as last name to Mustafa Kemal on 24 November 1934.
Ataturk was elected as the Speaker of the Grand Assembly on 24 April 1920 and again on 13 August 1923. This was a position equal to that of the president as well as the prime minister. Republic was proclaimed on 29 October 1923 and Ataturk was elected as the first President. Elections for President were renewed every four years according to the Constitution. In 1927, 1931 and 1935 Turkish Grand Assembly again elected Ataturk as the president.
Ataturk took frequent trips around the country and inspected locally the works undertaken by the state, giving directives were problems were faced. As president he was host to visiting foreign presidents, prime ministers and ministers.
He read his Great Speech, which covers the War of Independence and the founding of the Republic on 15 - 20 October 1927, and his 10th Year Speech on 29 October 1933.
Ataturk led a very simple private life. He married Latife Hanim on 29 January 1923. They took many trips to different parts of the country together. This marriage lasted until 5 August 1925. A great lover of children he adopted girls named Afet (Inan), Sabiha (Gokcen), Fikriye, Ulku, Nebile, Rukiye and Zehra and a shepherd boy named Mustafa. He also took two boys called Abdurrahim and Ihsan under his protection. He provided for the futures of these children who survived.
He donated his farms to the Treasury in 1937 and some of his real estate to municipalities of Ankara and Bursa. He divided his inheritance among his sister, his adopted children and to the Turkish History and Language Institutions. He enjoyed books and music as well as dancing, horse riding and swimming. He was extremely interested in Zeybek dances, wrestling and the Rumelia folk songs.
Games of billiards and backgammon gave him great pleasure. He valued his horse Sakarya and his dog Fox . He had a rich library. He used to invite statesman, scholars and artists to dinners where the problems of the country were discussed. He was particular about his appearance and enjoyed dressing well. He was also a lover of nature. He used to frequent the Ataturk Forest Farm and join in the work.
He knew French and German. Ataturk died on 10 November 1938 at 9.05 AM at Dolmabahce Palace, defeated by the liver ailment he was suffering from. He was taken to his temporary place of rest at the Ethnography Museum in Ankara on 21 November 1938. When the mausoleum was completed, he was taken to his permanent rest place with a grand ceremony on 10 November 1953.