By the end of the 2nd century a large Christian community had formed in Cappadocia. It is known that there were two bishoprics at that time; one in Kayseri, which, for a long time, continued to be a Christian center in the region and the other in Malatya.
In the 3rd century, priests with good character changed the region into a lively center of Christian activity. In the 4th century Cappadocia became known as the land of the three saints; St. Basil the Great, Bishop of Kayseri; his brother St. Gregory of Nyssa, and St. Gregory of Nazianzus.
These three men created a new unity in Christian thought, and many of St. Basil the Great's thoughts and actions are still important today. An example of his doctrine is the advice to Christian with one piece of bread in a famine. He said that the Christians should give half of the bread to a fellow believer and trust in God to take care of him. St. Basil the Great founded small, secluded settlements not too far away from villages and towns.
Daily worship was carried out under the supervision of a preacher. These groups were not; however, privileged groups separated from the community like similar communities in Egypt and Syria. St. Basil the Great is important in that he introduced worship within the community. He was not at all bigoted.
Goreme Open Air Museum is the place where this kind of religious education was started. The same model was then introduced in Soganli, Ihlara and Aciksaray.